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25 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Tap Water Quality in Croton

November 16, 2007

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Croton-on-Hudson has proposed dosing its water supply with the anti-corrosion compound, zinc orthophosphate (“ZOP”), as a measure to reduce brown water and lead traces, which some homeowners experience. The frequently asked questions below deal with the topics individually.

This FAQ is a work-in-progress: Comments, corrections and amendments are welcome! The questions are numbered to facilitate referring to them for correction or comment.

1. Where can I find some reliable information about “Get the Lead Out”?
* The U.S.E.P.A has good, basic information on lead in drinking water.
* Read the New York State “Get the Lead Out of Drinking Water” flyer.
* The Natural Resources Defense Council has some good basic information on water filters.
* Croton-on-Hudson’s website contains the annual Water Quality Reports and details on the anti-corrosion control proposal.

2. What kinds of homes are at risk for the lead in the tap water?
In 1985 the state banned lead-based solder for joining water pipes. The hundreds of village homes and condos built since 1986 are not likely at risk. In addition, older homes whose owners have undertaken major plumbing renovations since 1986 are not likely at risk either. Homes that have installed filtration and purification systems or under-the-sink filters are most likely not at risk. If in doubt, test your tap water to be sure. The most likely homes at risk are older homes in which the water pipes may have been soldered together with lead-based compounds.

3. How do I test if my home’s water pipes add lead to my drinking water?
Any lead is bad. A simple test in which you follow a protocol in collecting a tap water sample and mail it to a certified lab will tell you whether any lead appears in your tap water. The test kit and lab work is under $40 and available at many local hardware stores.

4. Where can I find some more information about water tests?
The web sites below contain information about testing tap water for lead. The list below does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement of any particular firm or organization.
* www.inspect-ny.com/water/leadtest.htm
* www.leadcheck.com
* www.leadinspector.com
* www.leadtesting.org

5. What can I do, if my home does have old water pipes?
Croton’s homeowners have a range of good options. In approximate order of increasing expense per homeowner, they include:

a. Run your tap until the water is cold. Hot water picks up more lead from pipes or solder. Colder water reduces the lead that is shed by solder in the joints. Use only cold tap water for drinking or cooking.
b. Install an appropriate filter under the sink. Some filters will remove lead. Use a scrupulous vendor. Use a certified plumber to install it. This is always an option, even after the village would begin a ZOP additive.
c. Have the village install a system wide remedy such as a water additive to reduce corrosion.
d. Have a plumber examine the joints of your home’s water pipes. If needed, replace old ones with non-lead based solder joints. Or replace your metal water pipes with certified plastic piping (e.g. WaterPEX tubing). Such projects will significantly reduce any potential lead problem.
e. Similarly, replace brass fittings or appliances from your water systems with other materials. Your home’s the water meter or pressure reduction valve may contain brass.
f. If you have a brown water problem, a whole-house filter may help. The downside is these filters are expensive and must be constantly maintained. Consult with a plumbing professional.

6. Where does the brown water come from?
The problem of brown water (a discoloration caused by tiny rust particles) arises from some of the village’s water main pipes in the ground, and to a lesser extent from the plumbing in older homes. The nearer to the end of a dead-end water main that a home is, the more brown the water may be from sitting motionless overnight. These unfortunate dead-ends were created decades ago, when rapid, less enlightened development led to some sub-par building practices. These may also involve areas with pipes that are narrower than would be installed today. The narrower the pipe, the higher the percentage of water in it that comes into contact with the pipe’s interior surface.

7. What is the permanent solution to the brown water problem?
Brown water is worst for homes on cul-de-sacs in the system. The solution is to create water loops by connecting dead end lines to other lines in the system with more active circulation. Larger gauge pipes are often also used to replace the old skinny trunk lines. The village is in the midst of a long range, expensive water main replacement program. The Harmon area is done. Wayne Street is nearly done. High Street is next. Other brown water locations are on the priority list already for the coming years. If old water lines are of sufficient diameter (many are not), another solution is to resurface their interiors with a thin layer of inert cement.

8. Why is this water additive being proposed now?
Adding ZOP is a quick fix solution. ZOP would leave a thin coating inside the water pipes that would seal off the leaching of rust or other trace metals into the water. Therefore, the ZOP would begin to reduce the brown water for those homes that suffer from it, and would reduce any other metals that might enter into our water, e.g. from the old lead-based solder joints or brass fixtures in a home.

9. Is Croton under state mandate to begin using an additive chemical?
No. The mandatory tests every 3 years of our tap water have not reached the level that triggers required intervention. The village is considering this step of its own volition. In the 2006 water tests, the tap water in one home out of 20 older homes tested was found to contain lead in more parts per billion than the state limit. In the 2003 tests, 3 out of 40 older homes had lead above the state action level. See the village’s 2006 and 2005 Water Quality Reports for the details.

10. What would happen if a future water test shows ‘action level’ amounts of lead in the tap water of older homes?
It is not entirely clear what the state’s trigger for requiring action is. Nonetheless, the state would tell the village to take action. That would most likely involve Croton installing a water additive system, such as the one now being proposed. But other measures might be recommended such as maintaining a low water temperatures, reducing corrosiveness of our water (which is already much less corrosive than the water in the NYC reservoir system).

11. What would happen if we did not add the anti-corrosive now?
The village would continue with the permanent solution to brown water of infrastructure renovations to the water mains and trunk lines in the affected areas with brown water. That work however would not remove the lead solder joints in older homes, which are the personal property of homeowners.

12. What is the chemical process behind zinc orthophosphate?
Once the ZOP is introduced into the water system, the chemical process at work removes the zinc from the ZOP when zinc bonds with the metals in the pipe wall. The phosphate acts as a carrier soluble in water and is now stripped of zinc. Hence, the phosphate remains in the drinking water.

13. Where does the phosphate go?
After passing through our sanitary sewer treatment system, the phosphates will go into the Hudson River. The state does not set a limit on the amount of phosphate the sewer treatment plants may discharge. The greatest source of phosphates in the past, household detergents, have been re-engineered to contain far less phosphate. Adding unnatural phosphates to the river is not beneficial to it. The Hudson’s peculiar geography means that anything in the water will slosh back and forth on the tides in our estuary, rather than be flushed to the sea each day. Phosphates are nutrients for plant life. Too much phosphate can lead to algal blooms.

14. How much will this ZOP additive cost?
By the time the additive system is designed, installed and placed into operation for a 3 year period, the cumulative cost would be over $100,000. This cost assumes that system can be accommodated within the existing pump house buildings at the well fields and would require no additional staff.

15. Who adds ZOP to their water supply?
About 15 Westchester communities add ZOP, some under state mandate to do so. Two-thirds of Westchester’s town and villages have elected not to add the anti-corrosion compound to their drinking water. None enjoy Croton’s enviable position of as owner and operator of its own water supply.

16. Where does Croton’s water come from?
Customers of the village’s municipal water system get excellent water delivered to their homes and businesses from a superb underground aquifer deep below the Croton River. The aquifer with its natural gravel, sand, and clay filtration system is not under the influence of surface runoff, a key sign of quality. The village’s water is regularly judged among the highest quality and best tasting in the county. Of course, home owners on dead-ends whose water is discolored do not enjoy the same, due solely to bad pipes.

Other questions seeking answers:

17. Will the zinc coating or phosphate remaining in solution affect the taste, odor, or clarity of our tap water?

18. How much phosphate will remain in suspension for a 12 ounce (0.35 liters) glass of drinking water after the zinc bonds out?

19. If colder water reduces lead precipitation, what are all the ways in which the village could maintain cool water temperatures for our water after it is pumped from the ground?

20. Will the zinc coating reduce the effectiveness of water filter systems many residents have installed to improve taste and clarity?

21. Is it true that the village’s water meters, installed at every water customer’s home, contain brass which may leach lead?

22. Is it true that many water pressure reduction valves in our homes, right next to the water meter, also contain brass which may leach lead?

23. What is the relationship between the mild corrosiveness of our aquifer’s water and the amount ZOP additive that would be injected into the water?

24. Do any other communities with such high quality, ph-balanced, aquifer-fed well water add ZOP?

25. If the village were to contemplate bottling its water for local retail sale as a revenue producing venture, would the ZOP additive or remnant phosphate decrease the value of the water as a clean product?

-- Leo Wiegman

Editor’s note: The author is a former Village of Croton-on-Hudson Trustee who served three terms from 2001 to 2007.

Related:

* "A Practical Plan to Solve Croton’s Water Problems—and End the Additive Controversy," November 14, 2007
* "Residents: There is NO Lead in Croton's Water," November 7, 2007
* "The Schmidt Open-Government Edict: 'We've Already Decided But We'll Listen Anyway'," November 4, 2007
* "Back from the Brink, Again," October 16, 2007
* "What If They Are Wrong? A Guest Editorial," October 13, 2007
* "A Simple Solution to the Impasse over Croton's Water," October 9, 2007
* "No Additives Here, Just Pure Croton Water," October 9, 2007
* "The Case Against Mayor Schmidt’s Scheme to Add Chemical Additives to Croton’s Water," October 7, 2007
* "The Quality of Croton Water is Not Strained," October 6, 2007
* "A Narrow Squeak: Croton's Water Supply Gets Last-Minute Reprieve from Chemical Additives," October 2, 2007
* "What the Hell is Going On Here? Why the Rush to Contaminate Croton's Water Supply?," September 30, 2007

On November 19, 2007 3:22 PM, weewill said:

Exactly Red Hill Resident — It appears only a few people with brown water may want yet another chemical forced into our system. I’ve read the arguments and for all the reasons stated Do Not Want Anything Added to my Water. The “gee whiz” - slap in the forehead - moment came for me just yesterday. An article in Newsweek warned parents against the use of plastic baby bottles. The DEP declared possible bacteria lurking in scratches and cracks that could harbor these dangerous germs and sicken our children. These heretofore “safe” and “harmless” products were now being questioned after prolonged use.

We just don’t know. We just don’t have the long-term consequences available. We’re guessing and playing with the unknown. It just is not worth taking the chance on our health and safety. Think recalls; think Vioxx, Celebrex, first and second hand smoke, MRSA and other antibiotic resistant bacteria. We’re surrounded by unknowns and should not be considering another.

I, too, am sorry Leo is not still on the board. And am thankful for Ann and Charlie who have demonstrated open minds until they have all the facts.

P.S. (And, Mrs. Smith, whoever you are …. I wouldn’t discount Tom Brennan yet. He’s shown independence and courage on several items and I’m counting on him to do the right thing now.)

On November 19, 2007 1:56 PM, red hill resident said:

I don’t want anything more added to my water. I spend a great deal of time and considerable expense keeping additives out of my family’s diet. Although I live in an older home, I have had my water tested and it is lead free. It is also quite clear. Yes, I am cynical about matters political. Over the past few years there have been several occasions where the every day, run-of-the mill, aw, shucks Croton resident has a (slap the forehead) “gee whiz” moment that meshes perfectly with whatever agenda the Mayor and his associates have earmarked as the crisis du jour. I question the sincerity of these public epiphanies in the Gazette, this blog or any other blog. Just a little too convenient. Finally, I am truly sad that Leo is no longer on the board. Him I can believe and trust.

On November 19, 2007 1:06 PM, notorc said:

You attack me but do not offer an opinion in regards to the subject at hand.

So Red Hill, what’s the problem?

What’s the real problem?

Do you need a hug?

On November 19, 2007 1:02 PM, Mrs. Smith said:

It is the village which does the sampling to send to the health department and I believe I heard this at a village board meeting where someone questioned the method of testing and it was admitted that they test more older homes since that is where the problems arise. Correct me if I am wrong.

On November 19, 2007 12:29 PM, red hill resident said:

On NCN Blog post from Notorc to Maria Cudequest as below:

PS - Maria, I sent you a PM through this board revealing my true identity…I hope you’re not disappointed…LOL

Seems pretty chummy to me.

On November 19, 2007 12:21 PM, notorc said:

Yes Ms. Grant, you are correct, the more information, the better. As mentioned below, I did contribute to the same discussion over at NCN. I want to be as informed as possible. http://www.ncnlocal.com/bb/viewtopic.php?t=35&start=0

Me, I was chastized for it…perhaps red hill will apologize but I won’t hold my breath.

For the department of health to target older homes in random testing doesn’t make sense. Can anyone verify this?

Also, I understand the department of health which regulates water supply does not allow in-home filters as a solution to poor water quality. Their reasoning is, they cannot expect individual home owners to keep up with maintenance and they cannot gain access to verify.

It’s interesting they check the inside of homes and not say where the service meets the house. I guess that’s big brother not relying on us to protect ourselves. Then again with 5% of homes having lead, I can understand why.

BTW, I understand unknown health concerns with ZOP but man, everytime I see the bathtub filled with brown water I have to wonder what that crap is doing to my body and my kids’ bodies! What’s the “unkown health concerns” with this brown water?

On November 19, 2007 11:47 AM, weewill said:

Didn’t someone once say that Crotonblog was a waste and served no useful purpose in the exchange of ideas and comments about village issues? These posts surely prove that premise wrong. They are a first rate example of how open dialogue and exchange can help us form our opinions about complex issues.

Would that all our elected officials would post their factual reasons, based on expert advice gleaned from meetings with technical experts trained and knowledge about the myriad particulars of these complex issues. Special thanks to Dan O’Connor for his detailed responses to Leo’s post.

We don’t have to agree but we need to be armed with accurate information before we can reach reasonable conclusions. Thanks all who have shared their thoughts with neighbors. And a special thanks to Crotonblog for providing the excellent forum.

On November 19, 2007 11:27 AM, Mrs. Smith said:

The problem is though, that if memory serves correctly, the village admitted that is tests more older homes in the “random testing” therefore the 5% figure is not an accurate gauge to use. I live in one of those homes where brown water is a constant, but I do NOT want any additives in my water - we do not know the “long” term effects of this additive and I can’t help but remember all the things which used to be safe, even good for us, but now are suspected of contributing to many illnesses and diseases. If I were a resident in this village who has no lead in their water, I would be furious that this solution for some is being foisted on everyone, I am sure it is a done deal and after the fireworks following the last meeting where Trustee Brennan went against the mayor, I doubt he will defy him again.

On November 19, 2007 10:27 AM, notorc said:

JTF, that’s EXACTLY how I felt at first. Like I mentioned, I already have three filters in my house.

Unfortunately, residents have not taken the lead issue seriously if we still have 5% above acceptable levels in random testing. Honestly, as silly as it sounds, this is the first I’ve ever heard of the lead issue…my issue has always been brown water. Trust me, even the whole house filter does not remove brown water when the hydrants are being flushed.

The reason I waiver over to the inclusion of ZOP is the lack of “downside”. Given the fact a municipality as big as NYC adds ZOP and there have been zero negative effects, I just don’t see the harm. Besides, there’s a chance NYS might mandate it anyway so perhaps the village engineer is being pro-active (which is good).

The upside is substantial in minimizing lead and brown water.

I understand it isn’t a simple issue and I’m not 100% comfortable in adding ZOP but I do think it makes more sense to add than not.

On November 19, 2007 10:12 AM, Just The Facts said:

Notorc,

Don’t you think that to the extent that someone has an older home, they should be responsible for themselves and install a filter. As far as the cost involved, I think that most of our residents can afford a Brita Filter. To the extent they can not (which I seriously doubt), then perhaps the village can subsize such costs ($40 a year?). Such costs are substantially less then adding this substance to our water.

Seriously, if I have a asbestos in my house, is it the village’s responsibility to remove it?

On November 19, 2007 9:33 AM, notorc said:

Red Hill Resident, you don’t know me so please don’t make accusations. this is a serious issue so I carefully read and responded to posts on every forum I found discussing it (both of them).

Am I not allowed to exchange e-mails with someone? Here’s what I said: “I want to remain anonymous because my views often differ with others and I don’t need the drama in my life. Besides, I want to keep the same ID I use on CrotonBlog and Journal News.” Why is that an issue for you? Because Ms Cudaquest now has my e-mail? So what, according to the type key site, the moderators here have it also.

This is not the first time I’ve been accused of being aligned with a certain group on this chat room (JK) and being a friend of Maria Cudaquest to be exact. It’s the “us vs them” attitude that makes me want to remain anonymous. For the record, she does not know who I am and I never met her or Bob Wintermeir, or anyone else that posts on the NCN forum. I promise I am an independent thinker, you should try it some time.

A few here need to get over the hate. Within this group, it seems everything the village does negatively reflects on the mayor. Remember, the Mayor is often acting on advice of the staff of our village. Manager Herbek, Dan O’Connor, Susan Menz, Abe Zombrano, etc. We pay these employees to run our village and they do, day-in, day-out. I think the mayor would be foolish to not listen to those closest to the issues. Why pick on the mayor so much?

Perhaps a couple of posters here have moms that keep saying “oh, if only you were a Doctor, me and your dad always wanted a Doctor in the family”…LOL

Anyway, back on topic. Once again, I will defend my path of free thinking here on croton blog. Me, I already have three filters in my home so I was against the ZOP additive from the beginning (whole house, line to sink and fridge, filter in fridge).

After reading some of the facts, I changed my mind:

  • I realize there are many homes who can’t afford this level of filtering.
  • Our village engineer and independent consultant recommend this course of action.
  • If NYS takes action, they would most likely recommend the ZOP additive (according to Leo Weigman).
  • 5% of unacceptable lead in homes in the village is way too much!! In fact, why wasn’t this issue addressed when 2003 tests show 7.5%? Why was it ignored so long???
  • I have not seen any data showing a negative impact from using ZOP. The closest was Charlie Kane and the Hudson but that turned out to be a red herring.
  • Yet there are plenty of case studies and experts recommending the addition of ZOP.

Now please take the time to explain why you are NOT in favor of adding ZOP.

On November 19, 2007 8:56 AM, red hill resident said:

Folks, our little buddy Notorc (posting a recent change of heart to better living through chemistry above) is a shill. Notorc recently lobbed a soft one to Ms. Maria (she who must be obeyed) on the NCN blog. It included a little passage regarding an off line email to be sent to the dynamic Ms. C. reveling the secret identity of Notorc. Perhaps most telling was the cute little lol nod and wink. The ever vigilant Maria took the opportunity to correct Notorc’s thinking to the Right and True way of the Great and Invincible Cudequest of Grand Street. As always, she is right and the rest of us can go hang.

On November 18, 2007 10:25 PM, John McBride said:

A chemical engineer said we should find out whether the coating which results from the application of ZOP would coat the inside of copper pipes in such a manner that would reduce the anti-bacterial effect that copper pipes have. That is, one of the reasons to have copper piping is that the copper will reduce the bacteria which naturally grows in the water. Will that benefit of copper pipes be diminished or eliminated?

On November 18, 2007 1:48 PM, notorc said:

Thanks Leo and Dan O’Connor for the information. I was against the ZOP at first but the more I read, the more in favor I am. Leo’s questions 9&10 seal the deal for me:

9. Is Croton under state mandate to begin using an additive chemical? No. The mandatory tests every 3 years of our tap water have not reached the level that triggers required intervention. The village is considering this step of its own volition. In the 2006 water tests, the tap water in one home out of 20 older homes tested was found to contain lead in more parts per billion than the state limit. In the 2003 tests, 3 out of 40 older homes had lead above the state action level. See the village’s 2006 and 2005 Water Quality Reports for the details.

  1. What would happen if a future water test shows ‘action level’ amounts of lead in the tap water of older homes? It is not entirely clear what the state’s trigger for requiring action is. Nonetheless, the state would tell the village to take action. That would most likely involve Croton installing a water additive system, such as the one now being proposed. But other measures might be recommended such as maintaining a low water temperatures, reducing corrosiveness of our water (which is already much less corrosive than the water in the NYC reservoir system).

It sounds as if the village engineer is being proactive which is welcome. Sorry but 5% of Croton Homes reporting higher than acceptable levels of lead IS a problem that should be dealt with. In fact, the 2003 tests reported 7.5%, why in the world is that ignored???

Couple the lead with the brown water issue, lack of a real “downside” and I’m convinced the ZOP solution makes sense. At least until we can completely replace all the pipes in our homes and streets.

On November 18, 2007 12:09 PM, Leo Wiegman said:

Dan O’Connor, our Village Engineer, took the time to reply to many of the questions above. I have pasted the complete text of his excellent replies below in boldfaced type ending with his initials, DOC. His replies are worth reading carefully. Where he deleted an incorrect statement made above, I show those corrections below with a cross out. Thanks, Dan!
Q7…The village is in the midst of a long range, expensive water main replacement program….Wayne Street [and Clinton Street are done.] DOC
Q10…It is not entirely clear what the state’s trigger for requiring action is [the trigger is if either lead or copper exceed the action level, 15 micrograms per liter for lead and 1.3 milligrams per liter for copper.] DOC.
Q11…The village would continue with the permanent solution…of infrastructure renovations [this work would also take decades to complete.] DOC .
Q12…Once the ZOP is introduced into the water system, the chemical process at work removes [results in zinc and phosphate forming complexes with lead and iron at the pipe surface which form a protective coating preventing further corrosion. A ZOP residual (~0.3 mg/l zinc and 1.0 mg/l Phosphate) is maintained in the water to ensure that the additive coats the entire distribution system] DOC the zinc from the ZOP when zinc bonds with the metals in the pipe wall. The phosphate acts as a carrier soluble in water and is now stripped of zinc. Hence, the phosphate remains in the drinking water.
Q13…After passing through our sanitary sewer [collection system and Westchester County sewage] treatment system, [most of] the phosphates will go into the Hudson River. The state does not set a limit on the amount of phosphate the sewer treatment plants may discharge [into the Hudson River] DOC.
Q17. Will the zinc coating or phosphate remaining in solution affect the taste, odor, or clarity of our tap water? [The residual zinc and phosphate concentration (~0.3 mg/l zinc and 1.0 mg/l Phosphate) will not affect the taste, odor or clarity of the tap water. For example EPA regulates zinc as a secondary contaminate with an MCL of 5.0 mg/l for taste reasons, this level is well above the 0.3 mg/l target level for corrosion control.] DOC
Q18. How much phosphate will remain in suspension for a 12 ounce (0.35 liters) glass of drinking water after the zinc bonds out? [In 12 oz. of water there will be about 0.1 mg of zinc and 0.35 mg of phosphate dissolved in the water. A multi vitamin has about 11 mg of zinc and much higher levels of phosphate are found in numerous foods.] DOC
Q19. If colder water reduces lead precipitation [leaching from plumbing materials], what are all the ways in which the village could maintain cool water temperatures for our water after it is pumped from the ground? [Generally it is impractical and economically infeasible to control water temperature for the purpose of modifying the corrosiveness of the water, other parameters play a more important role in controlling the rate of corrosion. The Village is looking at very economical options to reduce peak temperature spikes from water drawn from the North Highland steel water storage tank. These options will mix the water in the tank which will eliminate the upper warm warmer zone by distributing the warm water through out the tank. This method however will slightly increase the temperature of the lower water zone. Any other temperature reducing measures are likely to be impractical.] DOC
Q20. Will the zinc coating reduce the effectiveness of water filter systems many residents have installed to improve taste and clarity? [The ZOP is dissolved in the water and will pass through just about all filters. Cartridge filters will likely benefit due to a reduction in corrosion and the corresponding reduction in corrosion products such as “rust” particles that are trapped by the filter. Zinc will be removed by water softeners and very slightly increase the regeneration time, this however in practice is unimportant as all residential water softeners are not operated that precisely and are set to regenerate prior to media exhaustion. ZOP will be removed by reverse osmosis water treatment systems. Some of the zinc may be removed by carbon filters, it is not expected that this will shorten the life of the carbon filter used for taste (chlorine) and odor removal.] DOC
Q21. Is it true that the village’s water meters, installed at every water customer’s home, contain brass which may leach lead? [The body of the water meter is the newer low lead brass (almost all brass has some lead in the alloy) the metering parts are mostly plastic (reduces cost). As with just about all metals corrosion is possible and will occur to various degrees depending on the corrrosivity of the water supply and other factors such as galvanic corrosion. The corrosion of brass mainly leads to zinc and copper leaching into the water supply, minor amounts of lead can also leach into the water supply this is typically the greatest just after the brass plumbing component is installed and decreases over time due to surface fouling of the brass surface. The Village’s meter replacement program has also had the benefit of removing older higher lead brass water meter and replacing them with new lower lead brass water meters.] DOC
Q22. Is it true that many water pressure reduction valves in our homes, right next to the water meter, also contain brass which may leach lead? [See above response on water meters.] DOC
Q23. What is the relationship between the mild corrosiveness of our aquifer’s water and the amount ZOP additive that would be injected into the water? [The corrosiveness of the Village’s water supply is evident from the condition of the water mains and lead and copper test results. The ZOP is added at a dose that will produce residuals of zinc and phosphate in the target range which has been proven to reduce lead and copper levels and also reduce the corrosion of the cast iron water mains. The Village’s water contains sufficient natural alkalinity and is naturally in the slightly basic pH range that the addition of chemicals for alkalinity and pH adjustment are not required. The ZOP dose is correlated to the corrosivity of the water but not strongly, the perfect target dose may be 0.1 mg/l lower but practical considerations are also important. The type and condition of pipe material in the distribution system and customer buildings vary considerable, source water quality may vary slightly with seasons, water temperature varies seasonally (target concentration may be slightly higher during warm water time frames), water quality can vary in the distribution system; all these factors and others lead to a practical dosage and not a stoichiometric dosage being added. This same approach is used for the addition of chlorine to the water supply; a chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/l is considered the minimal residual level in the water distribution system, higher levels are typically found near the water treatment plant.] DOC
Q24. Do any other communities with such high quality, ph-balanced, aquifer-fed well water add ZOP? [This would need to be researched further to determine the source water quality of other water systems feeding ZOP.] DOC
Q25…would the ZOP additive or remnant phosphate decrease the value of the water as a clean product? [This is a hard question to answer as the “valve” of the water depends greatly on market forces in the bottle water industry which is very highly competitive. Any bottling operation would typically want to use the best available water supply possible, other items that are just as important are the quantity of water available, plant location and market location and costs associated with all of these and other items. Water bottling operations in NYS need NYSDOH approval, the health department also routinely inspects bottle water plants. Routine testing of the bottled water quality is also conducted at the plant and reported to the health department. Due to high consumer awareness most plants provide a high level of treatment consisting typically of non-halogen disinfection such as ozone and ultra violet light, carbon filtration to remove tastes and odors, and reverse osmosis to remove trace contaminates. The use of RO [reverse osmosis] at the bottled water plant would also remove the ZOP residual. The cost of permitting and building a bottle water plant would require that a certain quantity of product be produced daily to cover the cost of operation, distribution and generate a profit. It would appear unlikely that the Village would enter into this type of operation given the necessary investment and massive competition in the bottled water industry.] DOC



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